Human waste disposal is of great concern in sub urban and rural areas. This article outlines the basic precautions to be followed when disposing human and other household waste.
Excreta Disposal Without Water Carriage
Excreta disposal is more frequently a problem of the rural areas or small towns having no amenities of a water carriage system. It is important that the human excreta should be removed or disposed of hygienically and in an efficient manner. Any waste disposal method employed should generally aim at achieving the following objectives:
(i) All excreta should be removed to an isolated area for the proper disposal of waste.
(ii) The excreta should not be accessible to flies, insects or other animals.
(iii) It should not contaminate any surface or ground water supply.
(iv) There should be freedom from odors and unsightly conditions.
(v) The waste disposal method used should be simple and economical both in construction and operation and further should ensure privacy and convenience.
Hazards In Disposal Of Household Waste
How to dispose of household hazardous wastes safely? Many household products are potentially hazardous to people and the environment, and never should be flushed down drains, toilets, or storm sewers which is actually a violation of waste disposal safety guidelines. Treatment plant workers can be injured and waste water systems can be damaged as a result of improper waste disposal method used for the disposal of hazardous materials.
Other hazardous chemicals cannot be treated effectively by municipal waste water systems and may reach local drinking water sources. When flushed into septic systems and other on site systems, they can temporarily disrupt the biological processes in the tank and soil absorption field, allowing hazardous chemicals and untreated waste water to reach groundwater.
Some examples of hazardous household materials include motor oil, transmission fluid, antifreeze,
paint, paint thinner, varnish, polish, wax, solvents, pesticides, rat poison, oven cleaner, battery fluid
Many of these materials can be recycled or safely disposed at community recycling centers.
Classification of pesticides by function:
Acaricide is used to control mites and ticks;
Algicide inhibits Algae;
Arachnicide kills Spiders;
Attractant traps insects by attraction;
Avicide kills Birds;
Bactericide eliminates Bacteria;
Chemostreilant limits the spread of insects by sterilization;
Defoliant initiates leaf drop;
Desiccant induces drying of leaves in plants;
Disinfectant protects against general bacteria, fungi;
Growth regulator regulates the growth of plants;
Herbicide eliminates Fungi;
Insecticide kills insects;
Molluscicide is used to control Molluscs;
Nematicide kills Nematodes;
Piscicide eliminates Fish;
Repellent repels flies, fleas, moths, etc.
Rodenticide eliminates rodents (mice, rats, etc.)
Slimicide is used to kill slimes