Sewage treatment plants function as the disposal site and treatment of wastewater for the sewage collected from households, establishments, industrial and also agricultural. The gathering and disposal of sewage systems sends the wastewater through cities to the treatment plants. The wastewater is treated in the sewage treatment plants to preserve the natural environment by controlling water pollution and also ensuring that the water is thoroughly clean and free from any contaminants before it’s discharged to the environment specifically to the bodies of water. Another goal of treating the sewage is to provide protection to the public health and to prevent the spread of diseases.
The sewage system could transport the wastewater by gravitational forces to get diverted to the sewage treatment plant. If it is difficult for pipeline excavation because of boulders of rock and there is limited topographic relief, the collection of waste by gravity might not be applicable. In this case, the sewage must be pumped through the pipeline and straight into the sewage treatment plants. For those situated in low lying areas, wastewater might be transported by using vacuum. The measurements of pipelines could vary from 6 inches in diameter to thirty feet in diameter of concrete lined tunnels.
The sewage form community can be collected by an effluent sewer system also referred to as STEP system or Septic Tank Effluent Pumping. In every house where it utilized an underground collection tank that separates the solids from the liquids portion. The liquid portion is pumped through a small diameter pipe that has a size of 1.5 inches to 4 inches heading to the downstream treatment. The pipes could be laid underneath the ground surface along the land’s contour because the waste stream is pressurized. The sewage can also be collected by utilizing low pressure pumps and vacuum systems.
The residents served is considered in the size and design of the sewage collection systems. Another consideration is the commercial and industrial flows, the characteristics of peak flow and also the wet weather flow. The merged sewer systems are normally built to convey both the sewage and storm water runoff at the same time in the similar pipes. The characteristics of the watershed are likewise considered in the projected design of the merged sewer systems. Oftentimes, particularly in recent years, the mount of typhoon runoff can no longer be handled by the combined sewer that causes sewer overflows. This leads to water pollution problems in the nearby bodies of water.
The style and design of sewer lines that goes to the sewage treatment plant nowadays are separate lines for storm runoff and sewage alone. The storm runoff will move right to the surface water while the sewage systems will be transported to the sewage treatment plants. Many municipal sewer systems these days are constructed with isolated sewer systems. Even when the design of sewer systems is to have separate lines of which one is entirely created for sewage, the inflow and infiltration of surface water cannot be prevented. This in effect may cause the sanitary sewer to overflow. The inflow as well as infiltration is extremely affected by moisture conditions, which is likewise provided a significant thought in the system design.